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The model was generally replicated among women who entered new relationships at Waves 2 and 3. Elevated sexual risk behaviors among CSA survivors reflect difficulty in establishing stable and safe relationships and may be reduced Abuse adult sexual woman interventions aimed at improving intimate relationships.

These two CSA sequelae—relationship Abuse adult sexual woman and sexual risk taking—are likely to be linked. Despite the potential connection between relationship choices and sexual risk taking among CSA survivors, these outcomes typically have not been considered together. According to this model, sexually abused children are rewarded for sexual behavior with attention and affection.

According to Davis and Petretic-Jacksonthese patterns may continue into adulthood. For example, adult survivors tend to oversexualize relationships, feeling that they are obligated to provide sex or that sex Abuse adult sexual woman gain them affection. Further, the relationships of survivors may become sexual more Abuse adult sexual woman. CSA survivors typically report having more sexual partners compared with nonabused women Cohen et al.

Another of the traumagenic dynamics described by Finkelhor and Browne is betrayal, resulting in children feeling unable to trust adults, who they had expected to protect them. As survivors leave their troubled relationships, they form new relationships, resulting Abuse adult sexual woman a Abuse adult sexual woman of short-term intimate partnerships.

The tendency to affiliate with violent and sexually risky men is also likely to contribute to the relationship instability that has been observed in CSA survivors. Women who are unhappy in their relationships with violent and unfaithful men are likely to end these relationships in favor of new ones, resulting in the accumulation of additional sexual partners. The present study was designed to examine the association between CSA experiences and sexual risk among a community sample of young adult women.

Consistent with prior research, we hypothesized that women with a history of CSA would report higher baseline levels of sexual risk, including more lifetime sexual partners and earlier age of sexual debut. Thus, the first goal of the study was to test a model in which CSA is hypothesized to predict the characteristics of the male partners with whom she affiliates see Figure 1. Specifically, we hypothesized that the male partners of CSA survivors would be higher in sexual risk status i.

Based on prior research e. We hypothesized that higher levels of partner aggression and partner sexual risk would result in lower relationship satisfaction. We did not hypothesize direct effects from CSA or from baseline sexual risk behaviors to relationship satisfaction; rather we expected these effects to be fully mediated via partner aggression and partner sexual risk.

To bolster confidence in the model, we tested it again among women who reported new relationships at Wave 2 and at Wave 3. Hypothesized model of Wave 2 sexual partners as a function of childhood sexual abuse, Wave 1 partner characteristics, and Wave 1 relationship satisfaction. Arrows indicate structural paths, squares indicate observed variables, circles indicate latent factors, plus signs indicate expected positive relationships, and minus signs indicate expected negative relationships.

We predicted that CSA survivors would be more likely to report STI attributable to their current partner than would women without abuse histories. However, consistent with the notion that CSA survivors are more likely to affiliate with sexually risky and aggressive partners, we hypothesized that the relationship between CSA and STI within the current relationship would be mediated via partner risk characteristics see Figure 2.

Thus, CSA survivors were expected to report higher rates of STI within their current relationships because of the elevated risk status of their intimate partners.

Hypothesized model of sexually transmitted infection STI in current relationship as a function of childhood sexual abuse and partner characteristics. Arrows indicate Adorable love aaliyah feet paths, circles indicate latent factors, and plus signs indicate expected positive relationships.

Random digit dialing of households in Buffalo, New York, and its immediate suburbs in Erie County, New York, between May and Aprilwas used to identify women years of age for a study of alcohol use, sexual behavior, and sexual victimization among young women. This Breast augmentation payment plans rate is comparable to surveys conducted solely by telephone e.

The sample matched closely the characteristics of the local population. For example, There were very small percentages of Hispanic 3. At Time 1, average Abuse adult sexual woman was Most were employed either full time They were told that the session would include computer-administered questionnaires and a face-to-face confidential interview involving personality, alcohol and drug use, and sexual experiences.

When participants arrived at the Research Institute on Addictions, we explained study procedures to them and obtained informed consent. Wave 1 data reported Abuse adult sexual woman the current study were collected via a computer-assisted self-interview CASI. Waves 2 and 3 data were collected via paper-and-pencil questionnaires that were similar to Wave 1 CASI measures but focused Abuse adult sexual woman the previous 12 months. Mailed questionnaires were used to maximize response rate.

The same procedure was followed for Wave 3 questionnaires, 12 months later. Of the original sample of 1, women, Of 1, women who completed the first wave of the study, reported being in a current relationship with a man Abuse adult sexual woman included sexual intercourse. Of these9 refused to answer one or more of the CSA items. Because we could not determine whether these women had experienced CSA, they were dropped from subsequent analyses, resulting in included in Wave 1 analyses.

Women who had a current partner and hence were included in Wave 1 analyses did not differ from women without current male sexual partners in race, income, education, employment, or CSA history Abuse adult sexual woman were retained in the study at equal rates. Women with current partners were significantly older and more likely to be married, however. Childhood sexual abuse. At Wave 1, women responded positively or negatively to a series of eight items describing unwanted or nonconsensual sexual experiences before age Women who reported at least one type of unwanted sexual experience before age 14 were considered to have experienced CSA.

Additional questions included whether the experience occurred more than once and whether force was involved.

We assessed subjective trauma by asking women how upset they were at the time of the event Abuse adult sexual woman most upsetting event, if more than one and how upset they are now at Wave 1using 6-point scales ranging from 1 not at all to 6 extremely. At Wave 1, women indicated with how many people they had had sexual intercourse, even if only one time. The seven response options consisted of 0, 1, 2, 3, 4,and 10 or more.

At Waves 2 and 3 we asked this question again, specifying the number of sexual partners within the past 12 months. Women also indicated how old they were the first time they had consensual sexual intercourse and how soon they typically have sex with a new partner, with responses ranging from 1 the first day we meet to 6 a Abuse adult sexual woman or more after meeting. Women were asked a Abuse adult sexual woman of questions regarding whether they Abuse adult sexual woman ever had chlamydia, gonorrhea, syphilis, genital warts, trichomoniasis, genital herpes, or hepatitis B.

They were considered to have had an STI if they responded positively to any of these items. Intimate partner relationships. At Wave 1, women were asked whether they were currently in a relationship with a man and, if so, to record his initials or nickname. They were then asked a series of questions specific to this man.

Relationship satisfaction was assessed with three questions. Finally, for each identified sexual partner, women were asked to rate how frequently they used condoms when they had vaginal intercourse, using a 6-point scale ranging from 1 never to 6 every time. Minor psychological aggression was not used because it is normative in intimate relationships. Examples of minor physical aggression include being grabbed, pushed, or slapped; severe aggression includes being punched, kicked, or slammed against a wall.

Severe psychological aggression includes the partner calling her names. At Wave 1, women who indicated that they had a current male sexual partner were asked whether he had done any of the above behaviors during the course of their relationship. For Physical and Sexual Aggression subscales, women were assigned a score of 2 if any severe aggression items were endorsed, 1 if minor but not severe aggression items were endorsed, and 0 if no items were endorsed.

Women were assigned a score of 1 if they reported severe psychological aggression and 0 if they did not. At Waves 2 and 3, women were reminded of the partner they had indicated at the previous wave and asked if they were still with him. All women, regardless of whether their relationship was ongoing, were asked whether they had had a sexual relationship with anyone else.

The questions on sexual behavior, partner sexual risk, partner aggression, and relationship satisfaction were repeated specific to intimate partner relationships within the past 12 months.

Of the women included in Wave 1 analyses, On average, women Abuse adult sexual woman 9. Force or threat of force Mature fetish florida domination reported in Average trauma reported to have been felt at the time of the incident was 5. As a simple way of illustrating differences in sexual risk status according to CSA history, we compared women with and without these experiences see Table 1.

As hypothesized, women with a history of CSA reported higher levels of sexual risk on several variables, including greater numbers of sexual partners and greater likelihood of lifetime STI, as well Abuse adult sexual woman higher levels of partner sexual risk and partner aggression.

The structural model of hypothesized relationships was tested with AMOS software Arbuckle, with maximum likelihood estimation. Models were viewed as empirically adequate if they resulted in fit indices of. Before testing the predictive model, we used confirmatory factor analysis to test the measurement model. Confirmatory Abuse adult sexual woman analysis tests whether indicators load on specific latent variables as proposed.

Because the effects of CSA on later sexual behavior may be more apparent following more severe experiences, such as penetration and repeated victimization Beitchman et al.

First, women were given a mutually exclusive CSA score in which no abuse was coded 0, contact was coded 1, and intercourse or attempted intercourse was coded 2. Second, women were categorized according to how many times they had been victimized, 0, 1, or 2, with the highest number indicating more than one experience.

Finally, the subjective ratings of degree of Abuse adult sexual woman at the time of the abuse and currently were averaged to form the third indicator. A dichotomously coded measure of whether force was used did not correlate highly with the other indicators and was not included. Risky Sexual Behavior was composed of age of first consensual sex, number of lifetime partners at Wave 1, and typical amount of time before intercourse with Abuse adult sexual woman new partner.

Partner Aggression consisted of CTS psychological aggression, physical aggression, and sexual coercion from the current partner. Relationship satisfaction included ratings of overall relationship satisfaction, emotional satisfaction, and physical satisfaction.

Figure 3 shows results of the analysis predicting number of Wave 2 sexual partners as a function of Wave 1 relationship quality. Explained variance R 2 in relationship satisfaction was. Partner aggression and sexual risk characteristics were negatively associated with Wave 1 relationship satisfaction, which was negatively associated with number of Wave 2 sexual partners.

Consistent with our notion that the effects of CSA on relationship satisfaction are mediated via partner characteristics, the direct Abuse adult sexual woman from CSA and risky sexual behavior to relationship satisfaction were very small and nonsignificant. Wave 2 sexual partners as a function of childhood sexual abuse, Wave 1 partner characteristics, and Wave Abuse adult sexual woman relationship satisfaction.

Arrows indicate structural paths, squares indicate observed variables, and circles indicate latent factors. To increase confidence in the model, we sought to replicate it using Wave 2 relationship data to predict Wave 3 sexual partners. We expected that CSA would be associated with a continued tendency to affiliate with more aggressive and sexually riskier partners, which would again result in lower relationship satisfaction and increased number of subsequent sexual partners.

Partner sexual risk predicted relationship satisfaction, which predicted number of Wave 3 sexual Abuse adult sexual woman.


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